Glossary / E

ECF - Elemental Chlorine Free
A whitening system (for cellulose pulp) that does not use Chlorine in gassy form (elementary chlorine).

EMAS – Eco–Management and Audit Scheme
EMAS is a European Union system for responsible environmental management plus audit scheme that industrial concerns can join on a voluntary basis. Authorised private entities verify conformity with the requirements whereas registration is handled by the Ecolabel–Ecoaudit ministerial committee. The new EMAS regulation – in force from January 2010 and known as EMAS III – updates certain requirements found in the previous regulation dating from 2001. These range from introduction of new key environmental indicators that companies use to communicate their performance, to publication of guidelines by sector with reference to best practices, so creating conditions for a real benchmark.

Emission trading
This is an economic environmental policy tool envisaged by the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in a measurable, lasting and economically sustainable manner. It actually identifies an emissions credit trading system, a “cap and trade” market. The agreement establishes the overall quantity of permitted emissions (cap), divides it up and distributes it in credits among participants (each system – country and company). The credits can be exchanged (trade) between participants so that, at the end of the Treaty verification period, each participant holds a number of credits equal to its own emissions produced in the same period.

EMS – Environmental Management System
An EMS is part of an organizations overall management system that integrates environmental concerns defined by specific European and/or international standards.

E–PRTR (European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register) is the new register created by the European Union on the basis of Regulation (EC) 166/2006 (“Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the establishment of a European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register and amending Council Directives 91/689/EEC and 96/61/EC”). The E-PRTR was created in the context of the Aarhus Convention, and replaces the previous E-PRTR Register, with additional information.