Glossary / C

Carbon footprint
More correctly “CO2 footprint”, it indicates the calculated impact that human activities (organisations, businesses, collective events, etc. but also every single individual action) have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide (CO2).

CEPI
The acronym that stands for the Confederation of European Paper Industries. Its headquarters are in Brussels and it represents 800 companies in the sector, from 18 countries (16 in the European Union plus Switzerland and Norway). Its mission is to promote paper products through specific actions in the following fields: industry, environment, energy, forestry management, recycling, tax policies and competitiveness in general.

COC – Chain of Custody
The chain of custody is the system through which the traceability of fibrous raw materials is guaranteed, from the original forest to the end product, through the various manufacturing stages: from logging to pulp production, paper manufacture and product distribution.

COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)
This corresponds to the quantity of oxygen necessary to oxidise the organic matter present in an effluent.

Co–generation
Combined generation of steam (thermal energy) and electricity.

CSA
The acronym of Canadian Standards Association, this is one of the internationally recognised forest certification schemes, together with PEFC and FSC. CSA certification derives from ISO standard 14001, with additional criteria to assess the performance that must be incorporated into management plans through a process of participation and public debate.